Easy Run: Should be just that easy. They should be nice and easy and you should feel relaxed and in control. You should be breathing easily and be capable of holding a full conversation throughout the run. Many runners run this type of run too hard and that in turn can impact on quality of your faster runs. For those who run to heart rate this should be approx. 70% of your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)
Steady Run: Steady running sits between easy runs and your threshold runs. Generally, in a range of 70-80% of your MHR. It can have a role in your training e.g. Progression runs or in you long runs Although too much steady running and you could start running junk miles. You will lose some of the benefits of your easy runs and be too tired to hit your harder sessions effectively.
Threshold Running: This pace is best described as controlled discomfort. You are working hard but not at full tilt. You should be able to utter 3-4 words when talking to the coach or training partner. Heart rate would be between, about 80–85% of your MHR.
Threshold runs improve your lactate threshold (the speed above which your body struggles to cope with the lactic acid created by burning energy without oxygen), your running economy and aerobic capacity.
Rest & Recovery: Are just as important as the running itself. To allow your body to cope with the workload/stress you are placing on it, you need to build rest days to your training. Listen to your body and take heed of any warning signs. If you feel fatigued even before you’ve run a step, find yourself thinking up excuses not to run or start suffering a series of minor injuries; you probably need more time off. Taking enough rest allows physical and mental recovery and gives your body the time to adapt to your workload.
Interval Running: Interval training helps to boost specific race pace speed and involves running timed efforts with a controlled recovery. The effort level is around 85–100% of MHR, depending on the duration of the event you are training for and the length and volume of intervals used. A typical example might be 6 x 3 minutes @ 5km race pace with a 90 second jog recovery but commonly includes efforts from 30 seconds right through to 4-5 minutes depending on the goal of the session. These sessions build speed and your maximum oxygen uptake (vo2 max).
Continuous Hills: This are a slightly different type of session focused more on strength endurance and involve running both up and down hill at effort. Run up a hill which is not too steep, maybe 5-8% gradient and is long enough to run in one direction for about 30-60 seconds. Run up the hill at Threshold effort and then turn immediately at the top and run down the hill at the same effort, then turn at the bottom and repeat without any recovery until the rep time ends. Like a threshold run, a hill session is time to concentrate, as you should be working at about 80–85% of MHR and be able to utter just a few words. We usually do something like 4 x 5 mins at Threshold effort with 90 seconds recovery between reps
Fartlek: This is a Swedish term that literally means “speed play”. During this type of session you will run a mixture of different paces and distances. For example running in the street you can run fast between lampposts or trees.
Cross Training: Supplementing your running training with other forms of low impact exercise can help keep injuries at bay. Swimming, Cycling, elliptical machine will allow you to exercise but without the impact that running has.
Yoga & Pilates are also good and building strength and mobility all over your body.
Cross Country: These races are run over undulating hills and usually involve mud & rain. They are good fun and are good for building leg strength. The range in distance anything from 5km to 12km
Road Race: Any distance of race which is mainly on asphalt. This can be anything from 1 mile to the marathon.
5km: 5,000 meters/ 3.1 miles which can be run on the track, road or hills.
10km: 10,000 meters/6.2 miles which can be run on the track, road or hills.
Half Marathon: 21.1km/13.1 miles which is usually run on the road
Marathon: 42.2km/26.2 miles which is usually on the road.
Ultra Marathon: Any race that is longer than a marathon.